BEST OF MONTENEGRO
• 1000 interesting facts about Montenegro
• 260 pages
• 200 ilustrations and photographs
• Modern design
• Author: Veseljko Koprivica, journalist and publicist
This interesting book, as a present to your friends, colleagues, business partners and all people who wish to learn about Montenegro in this popular way, can be purchased for 15€ on author’s phone number +382 69 012 343 or by e-mail email@example.com.
Montenegro, fi rst known as Doclea and later Zeta, has been an arena
of a great number of harsh events for ten centuries. A lot of them
were well known all over the World.
Montenegro was the crib of many great personalities who left deep
traces of their time and became well known far outside Montenegrin
Montenegro has many natural phenomena and some of them are
unique in the world.
Many writers, historians, scientists, journalists and accidental passersby witnessed all this.
Still, a lot of details are unknown to wider general public and even
to many Montenegrins.
Wishing to introduce some part of those interesting facts to wide
range of readers, I tried to put them together in one place. That is
how this lexicon of great number of many diff erent thematic attractions
was created. All these facts are dated from the earliest Montenegrin
history to our days.
The main criterion in selection of the events, persons and phenomena
chosen to enter this book, was to line them as the fi rst ones, the
only ones, the best ones and so on.
I am sure that this guide through space and time of Montenegro
would be interesting and useful to those who want to make acquaintance
with one of the oldest European countries in a popular
way. It is my great pleasure to introduce this book to the admirers
of curiosities to read it and to try to expand it together.
Montenegro is the oldest South-Slavic state on Balkans. It has
a thousand years long tradition fi rst as Doclea, that Zeta and
fi nally Montenegro.
The fi rst Montenegrin state Doclea was named after the Roman
city of Doclea, former political centre of the old Illyrian
tribe Docleates. Doclea was the fi rst South- Slavic country whose
independence was approved by Byzantium. Being a vassal Byzantine
principality, Doclea fought for its independency and won it in
the battle near Tudjemili in 1042/43.
_ Montenegro was mentioned for the fi rst time in the charter
of King Milutin in 1296. At the beginning that name referred to
the Mountainous part of the state of Zeta – Upper Zeta. Afterwards,
when Ivan Crnojevic moved his Court and Archdiocese there and
Montenegro became the centre of the state of Zeta, all regions of
Zeta were included under the name of Montenegro.
_ Montenegro was mentioned for the fi rst time in the Italian
sources in 1348.
_ The fi rst Montenegrin passport was issued in 1751. Until
then, Montenegrins travelled to the other countries without any
documents. Five passports from the Njegos’s time are preserved in
the Museum of Cetinje. Those are “Montenegrin pass-through letters
“ and “Montenegrin passports”.
Montenegrins got their first national anthem in 1870. It was
a song “Ubavoj nam Crnoj Gori” (“To Our Beautiful Montenegro”)
written by Jovan Sundecic. Sundecic was born in Livno and he
was a priest and a secretary of Prince Nikola. Song was performed
for the fi rst time in public in the Library of Cetinje on the 17-th of
October 1870. It was composed by a Czech author Anton Schulz.
The first water supply system was constructed in Cetinje in
Montenegro signed the Berne Convention for the Protection
of Literary and Artistic Works on the 4th of May 1896.
Montenegro ratifi ed the Hague Convention Declaration on
the Use of Bullets which Expand or Flatten Easily in the Human
Body and bullets containing poisonous gases on the 16-th of
The first Montenegrin bank was established in Cetinje in 1906.
Its starting capital was 75 000 crowns.
Montenegro signed the International Hague Protocol on
Peaceful Resolution of Disputes between the States from
1899 on the 14-th of June 1907.
The first Montenegrin Law on gambling was passed on the 29-th of June 1909.
_ Montenegro was proclaimed Kingdom on the 28-th of
The first power plant in Montenegro began to work in Cetinje
on the 16-th of August 1910. Three-phase electricity was produced
using an 110kW diesel engine (with a 2100V high voltage
cable network and the transformer substations in the city). It was
used for the city electrifi cation.
Montenegro signed the International Convention on Automobile
Traffic on the 20-th of May 1912.
The area of today’s Montenegro is 13.812 square kilometers.
There is no more than 190 kilometers of the aerial distance between
its furthest points.
_ When prince Nikola was throned in 1860 the area of Montenegro
was only 4.000 square kilometers.
Montenegrin border is 814 kilometers long. Montenegro
shares a border with Serbia (203km), Albania (172km), Bosnia
and Herzegovina (225km) and Croatia (14km).
_ The fi rst Montenegrin royal dynasty was family Vojislavljevic.
They were the rulers of Doclea/Zeta from the beginning of
the 11-th century. Dynasty Vojislavljevic, whose establisher was
Prince Stefan Vojislav, ruled Zeta for about 200 years.
The fourth Montenegrin dynasty Petrovic ruled Montenegro
for 220 years. Family tradition of this family says that they are
originally from Zenica in Bosnia. In the middle of the 15-th century
their ancestors went towards Herzegovina and lived in Trebinje for
a while and than they moved to live on the mountain Njegos, in a
place called Cerovica. From there, at the end of the same century,
they moved and settled in Njegusi.
Prince- Bishop Danilo, the establisher of the Petrovic dynasty
(Njegusi, around 1670 - Monastery Podmaine, January 11-th
1735), was wounded during the battle of Carev Laz in 1712. Prince-
Bishop’s life was saved thanks to the cross that stopped the sabre
blade of a Turkish soldier. This dented cross has been kept in Cetinje
for a long time. It disappeared during the Second World War together
with many other valuable evidences of the rich Montenegrin
historical and cultural past.
_ Prince- Bishop Danilo was the fi rst Montenegrin bishop
with attributes of a statesman.
_ Petar II Petrovic Njegos gave his own passport in Russian and
German language as a sample passport
during the print of the Montenegrin passports in Cetinje between
1834 and 1851. His passport was issued on the 7-th of September
1833 while he was on his way back from St Petersburg to Montenegro.
_ Petar II Petrovic Njegos established the bodyguards- “perjaniks”
in 1837. They had to follow him everywhere and fulfi ll his
every command. Njegos brought red hats for his perjaniks from
Prince/King Nikola I Petrovic (Njegusi, October 7th 1841-Cap
d’Antibes), March 1st 1921) ruled Montenegro longer than any
other Montenegrin ruler – fi fty eight years. He was on the Montenegrin
throne from 1860 until 1918. Nikola I wrote poems and dramas
and he was also an excellent orator. He was dethroned on the 26-th
of November 1918 by the resolution of the illegitimate Assembly of
_ Nikola I Petrovic led Montenegrins and Herzegovinians
himself in the glorious battle against Turks in Vucji Do in 1876. He
was the high commander of the Montenegrin Army in the Balkan
Wars and the First World War.
_ European rulers highly praised King Nikola. He was known
as “the European father-in-law” because most of his eight daughters
were married to the representatives of the oldest European dynasties
of those days. His daughter Zorka was married to Petar Karadjordjevic,
the son of the dethroned Serbian ruler Prince Aleksandar.
King’s second daughter Vidosava-Milica became a wife to the Great
Russian prince Petar Nikolayevich Romanov. Anastasija-Stane married
a Russian prince Ore Romanovsky, Duke of Lichtenberg. Jelena
became Italian Queen by marring the King of Italy Victor Emmanuel
III of Savoy. Princess Ana married Franz Joseph Battenberg of
Antonije Abramovic (Dobrota, 1919 - Podgorica, 1996), the
clerk of the Russian Orthodox Church in Canada, was chosen
to be the fi rst Mitropoliten Bishop of the renewed Montenegrin Orthodox
Church. The General Montenegrin Assembly elected him in
Cetinje on the 31st of October 1993.
_ Montenegrin artist Marina Abramovic (Belgrade, March
30 1946) received the grand-prix for her piece “Balkanski barok”
(“Baroque of the Balkans”) in the Venice Biennale in 1997. No other
Montenegrin painter received such reward.
_ Norwegian offi cer Henrik Angel was the fi rst person who
brought skiis to Montenegro. This happened on the 17-th of January
1893. He started his tour through Montenegro in Cetinje. He
described his journey adventures in a book „Skiing Throughout
Montenegro“. Later, at King Nikola’s request, he brought a hundred
pairs of skiis in Cetinje and started a skiing course for soldiers and
wealthy Montenegrin young men.
_ Aleksandar Arsenijevic (Andrijevica, 1920) translated
from French, English, German and Russian. He also translated economic
literature into those four languages. He wrote stories, poetry,
critics and movie scenarios.
_ The king Frederick Augustus II of Saxony (1797-1854)
visited Njegos in Cetinje on the 31st of May 1838. He was the fi rst
foreign sovereign to come and visit Montenegro. The King gave
Njegos the ring with his monogram and brilliants. Frederick Augustus
II left valuable data about Njegos and Montenegrins.
_ Sculptor Janko Brajovic (Cetinje, 1889 - Panama, 1948)
was very famous in South America, Paris and London. Great number
of his sculpture is kept in many states in South America. In spite
of this great success his name is not mentioned in any monograph
or encyclopaedia published in Montenegro. He is also highly acclaimed
as the Master of the woman torso. His bust of the Indian
chief of the tribe Yowlacha was exhibited in the Royal Art Academy
in London in 1933. He was a got portray painter as well.
_ American writer Francis Scott Fitzgerald gave Montenegrin
medal to the main character of his novel “The Great Gatsby”
Jay Gatsby. It was the fi rst Montenegrin medal “Danilo’s cross”. This
medal was established in 1853.
_ Austrian King Ferdinand I gave a cross with brilliants to
Njegos in 1842. Njegos wrote him an ode that was specially printed
in Cetinje in 1835.
_ Saira Gomez from Puerto Ordaz is the only Montenegrin
bride from Venezuela. She married former sailor Zdravko Pilastro
from Kotor in 1998.
_ Spiridon Gopcevic, author of 15 novels, dramas and poems
that were published in Europe, is one of the fi rst Montenegrin
astronomers. One of the craters on the Moon has his poetic pseudonym
- Leo Brenner.
_ Ante Gvozdenovic was a Montenegrin Senator in Washington
during the Second World War and Russian Sanitary General.
He had worked in the Army Medicine Headquarters of the army
area of Kavkaz and than in Moscow and Warsaw. He was also one
of the fi rst Montenegrin doctors (he received diploma in Moscow
in 1872) and President of the Emigrant Government of King Nikola.
Gvozdenovic spent one holiday in Monte Carlo and got a large sum
of money. One night it happened that he was late for the train to
Warsaw where he was working. In order to get there on time, he
spent all of his gambling money on a single train composition just
for himself. He arrived to work in Warsaw on time.
_ Mila Jovovic, one of the world’s most popular actresses,
has Montenegrin origins. Her father was from Montenegro.
_ One of the most acclaimed novelists and essay writers in
former Yugoslavia - Danilo Kis fi nished High School and passed the
application exam for the Painting School in Cetinje. His mother was
_ The greatest Montenegrin artist Petar Lubarda (Cetinje,
1907 - Belgrade, 1974) received the fi rst prize on the Biennale in Sao
Paolo. Henry Moore and Herbert Reed said: “There is nothing going
on in the world of art except Lubarda”. He had his fi rst exhibition in
Rome in 1929.
_ Avdo Medjedovic (1874-1955), poet and recite from the
village Obrov near Bijelo Polje, memorized the whole epic poem
“Zenidba Smailagic Meha” (“The marriage of the Smailagic Meho”).
Poem had 12.311 verses. He met famous American Homeric studies
specialists Milman Parry and Albert Lord and they wrote the poem.
That was the longest of all 8 versions of the poem.
_ Hollywood star Brad Pitt played his fi rst role in a movie
“Dark side of the Sun” which was recorded in Montenegrin Coast in
1987. Montenegrin director Bozidar- Bota Nikolic chose Pit for this
role. Nikolic was also director of photography for this movie. Bred
was especially amazed by the beauty of Perast.
_ Kick boxer Ivan Strugar from Podgorica (discipline low
kick) won the Medal of the Amateur Champion of Europe for the
forth time in 2000. He became the most successful kick boxer in the
history of that sport.
_ Nikola Tesla (1856-1943), world famous scientist and inventor
in Electro-Engineering fi eld, translated many Montenegrin
poems on English. The poem about famous Montenegrin hero
Luka Filipov who captured Osman-Pasha in the Battle of Vucji Do
was published thanks to him. King Nikola gave him Medal of Danilo
I in 1895. According to some sources Tesla family roots are from village
Draganici near Niksic.
_ Austrian scientist Emil Tice wrote the fi rst thematically
wide book about the geology of Montenegro.
_ German writer Ernest Toller managed to escape from
Hitler’s Germany and attend the congress of the P.E.N. club in Dubrovnik
in 1933. He visited Cetinje and Podgorica. He started a
speech on demand of the citizens in front of the hotel “Imperial” in
Podgorica. Police didn’t allow him to fi nish.
_ Captain Petar Zambelic (Lustice, Boka Kotorska, - Argentina,
1907) was guiding the fi rst ships through the “Tierra del Fuego”. He
worked with his ship for the Government of Chile. He is still a legend
in that southernmost part of the world. His deeds are still well known
and told from generation to generation in Punto Arenas (city in Chile
in Terra del Fuego). The mayor of this city was Montenegrin Carlos
Gonzales Jaksic. Zambezic discovered new islands in the Strain of
Magellan. Journalist in Chile used to compare him to Columbus and
Magellan. He was also the major inspector of the Chilean Navy. He
died in a shipwreck near the coast of Argentina in 1907.
One of the oldest and most important sanctuaries in Europe is
Monastery Zlatica situated in a place called Crkvine near Podgorica.
This monastery is one of the fi rst Episcopal centres in the
church of Byzantine. It was built in the fi fth century. In 325 there used
to be a central church of the bishopric of Doclea. Marble sarcophagus
was discovered in the cavern in the ground near the Monastery
Zlatica. Heavy cover is mainly broken. The same sarcophagus, but
without cover, is kept in Hagia Sophia in Constantinople.
Benedictines established more than
20 monasteries in today’s Montenegro in
diff erent periods. The oldest one is Santa Maria
in Budva from 840.
_ Cathedral of Saint Tripun in Kotor is one of the oldest
churches in Europe. It was built in 1166. It is 69 years older than
the famous Notre Dame in Paris and 460 year older than the Basilica
of Saint Peter in Rome. It was build 17 years before the Monastery
Studenica and 169 years before the Higher Decani. Cathedral of
Saint Tripun is the oldest South- Slavic cathedral.
_ Icon of the Virgin Philermosa, one of the most famous
icons in the world, is kept in Cetinje. Icon ended up n Cetinje after
the eight years of wandering. It is very precious and it is one of
the most curious icons in the world. Five kilograms of gold and 280
pieces of precious stones were used for its making. It was exhibited
in many iconostases all over the world for eight centuries. The news
that this icon is in Montenegro was given to public on the 7-th of
_ Madrasa of the Husein- Pasha Boljanic in Pljevlja is the
oldest madrasa in the area of today’s Montenegro. The most famous
madrasa is the madrasa of Osman- Pasha in Pljevlja. It was
built similar to the Madrasa of the Osman- Pasha Sokolovic in Istanbul.
THE CRVENA STIJENA
_ Crvena Stijena by the village Petrovici near Niksic is one
of the oldest cultural and historical monuments and also one
of the most important archeological sites in Europe. The cave is
unique in the world because of numerous cultural horizons it contains.
There are 31 cultural layers from diff erent periods in continuity.
It is thought that humans lived in those areas from an early
Paleolithic until the Bronze Age. Scientist Djuro Bazler believes that
the humans here were miners even 30,000 years BC.
_ At the end of 19-th and beginning 20-th century famous
archeologists came to visit Montenegro. Some of them were:
Arthur Evans, H. Richy, J.A. Munro, P.A. Rovinski, C. Praschniker, A.
Schober, J. Hann. They did archeological excavation in many parts
of Montenegro, but the opportunity to keep the fi ndings of those
excavations as the museums values was left out.
_ Illyrians, the oldest natives in the area of today’s Montenegro,
didn’t have their own alphabet. They were using Celtic and
_ The first schools in Montenegro existed in the Benedictine
monasteries and abbeys in the period when Doclea was its capital.
The art of good and beauty of writing and so-called “seven free skills”
were thought there.
_ Latin characters letter was used in Doclea, or later Zeta, until
the end of the 12-th century. Since the end of the 15-th century Cyrillic
letter was spreading more and more in the area of Montenegro.
_ In 3-rd decade of the 15-th century, the High Grammar
School was opened in Kotor. It was the fi rst school in Zeta, today’s
Montenegro. In the 16-th century it became a Senior High School.
Educated rectors of the High School in Kotor were fi rst mentioned
in 1429 and then again, during the 16-th century, when the Poetics,
Philosophy, a Astronomy and Forensics were thought.
_ In the 16-th and 17-th century, Perast and other places
in Boka Kotorska had couple of private Maritime schools. Some
world famous sailors were educated there.
_ The first private school in Montenegro was opened in Podgorica
in the 1704 in the house of the priest Panto. School had pupils
from the wealthy families in Podgorica.
_ The first women middle school in Montenegro- “the Girls’
Institute of the Russian Queen Marija Aleksandrovna” was established
in Cetinje in 1869. Institute gave fi rst educated Montenegrin
woman teachers. Four hundred and fi fty girls, 205 from Montenegro,
203 from Austro-Hungarian girls and 25 girls from the neighbor
countries where the students of one of the most acclaimed schools
on Balkans called “ little Sorbonne”. Institute was closed in 1913. On
the suggestion of the Russian czarina, educated noblewoman Sofia
Mertvago became the Principal of the Institute in 1888.
THE FIRST NATIONAL
Montenegro was the fi rst county in the world to have the
national printing house. Ruler of Zeta Djuradj Crnojevic got
the printing equipment from Venetia in 1493, only four years after
Gutenberg invented modern printing skills. It was set up to work in
_ Fresco “Gavran hrani proroka Iliju” or “the Raven Feeds
Prophet Ilija” being kept in the Monastery Moraca, Pablo Picasso
enlisted in the masterpieces of the world art. Fresco is from the
16-th century and it had the epiphanic topics. It also represents the
victory of the so-called “plastic” style that began in the early 13th
THE FIRST MOVIE
_ The first traveling cinema came in Montenegro near the
end of 1901 or beginning of 1902. This fact was discovered in the
Vienna’s cinema “Uranija” where is said that movie “U crnim brdima”
(“In the black hills”) was played in the Royal Castle in Montenegro.
Cinematographer of that historical movie about Montenegro was
the fi rst movie presenter in Cetinje.
_ “Voskresenja nema bez smrti” (“Non e resurrezione senza
morte” or “There’s no resurrection without death”) is the first Montenegrin
movie. Vladimir Popovic recorded it in Rome in 1922
and it lasted about two hours. Its premiere was in famous, still existing
Rome cinema “Cinema Volturno” on the 14-th of April 1922.
STATION ON BALKANS
_ The fi rst Montenegrin magazine was “Crnogorac”
(“Montenegrin”). The fi rst issue appeared in Cetinje on the 23rd of
January 1871. It was published weekly on four pages and the editor
was Simo Popovic.
_ Eight almanacs and seven literary magazines were issued
in the 19-th and 20-th century: “Crnogorka” (“Montenegrin woman”)
in two diff erent periods, “Zeta”, “Nova Zeta” (“New Zeta”), “Luca” (“The
Light”), “Knjizevni list” (“Literary Paper”) and “ Dan” (“Day”).
_ The first radio-telegraphic station on Balkans began to
work in Volujica, near Bar on the 3-rd of August 1904. It worked on
the 500 meters wave length and had 200 km range. Famous inventor
Marconi installed it and he was present on the day of its opening.
It was used in postal purposes, maritime traffi c and diplomacy
in Cetinje. Volujica was connected with the San Cataldo Station in
Bari and thanks to it with the whole Western Europe.
_ The fi rst data about organized transfer of the postal shipments
on the territory of today’s Montenegro are from the Roman
period. In those times Balkans was the bridge between east and
west Roman provinces and Roman Empire. The cursus publicus,
well organized institution for transporting passengers, cargo and
postal shipments, was formed in those times.
_ For three centuries Montenegrin postmen played signifi -
cant role in transporting European correspondences to East, especially
in transporting diplomatic post between Venetia and Constantinople.
_ The first International contract about post transporting
was signed in Montenegro between Kotor and Constantinople in
_ The first telegraphic connection with world was made
in Kotor on the 14-th on March 1870. Telegraphic connection with
Serbia was established on the 16-th of November 1912.
_ The first telegram tax was determined in the Law of Telegraphy
in 1870. The fi rst printed telegraph rates were announced
by Main Post and Telegraph Administration in 1902.
_ Montenegro signed first postal convention with Austria
on the 25-th of May 1871.
_ Montenegro was the first country in the world to use automobile
postal transport. Since the 5-th of July 1903 post was
transported with an automobile instead of diligence. The automobile
was called “karoca bez konja” meaning the coach without
horses. Parisian driver drove the automobile that was produced in
French fi rm “Delahaye”. It took 5 hours and 45 minutes to get from
Cetinje to Niksic. That was the first car ever in Montenegro at the
same time. Soon after, a bus with ten seats and space for post had
regularly scheduled route between Kotor and Niksic, going through
Podgorica and Cetinje.
_ The first automobile came in Montenegro in the beginning
of July 1902, two years after the first automobile was produced
in the world. Bourbon prince, the son of Don Carlos, Spanish
pretender and his wife were driven in it from Kotor to Cetinje.
The first railway in Montenegro was connecting Bar and Virpazar.
On the 13-th of September 1908 the fi rst train was on those tracks
and two months later there was a regular train running schedule.
This fi rst railway was built thanks to the investment of Italian capital
through the Society of Bar (Compagnia di Antivari).
THE SURGEON FROM
THE 14-TH CENTURY
_ The first hospital on the territory of today’s Montenegro
was established in Kotor in 1067. It had special wards for contagious
patients and lepers.
_ The first educated doctors in Montenegro were mentioned
in Kotor in 1326. According to some writing from the 1326
Kotor had two doctors, internist and surgeon, barber-dentist and
_ The first pharmacy in Montenegro was opened in Kotor
in 1326. It was one of the oldest pharmacies in the whole area of
OF DUBROVNIK IN TUZI
_ Italy, Russia, France, Austro-Hungarian, Great Britain, Germany,
Bulgaria, Belgium, Greece, Serbia, USA and Turkey had their
diplomatic missions in Montenegro during the reign of Nikola I
Petrovic in the 19-th century.
_ Greek ambassador was the last diplomat to leave
Cetinje after King Nikola was dethroned. He gave the keys of his
residence to Austrian authorities in January 1916.
_ France was the first state to end diplomatic relations
with King Nikola and his refugee government on the 20-th of December
1920. USA followed on the 21st of January 1921 and soon
after England on the 17-th of March 1921. That is how the forces of
Allies gave approval to liquidation of Montenegro as a state and its
joining to Serbia and The Kingdom of SCS.
_ Germany was the first state to name the ambassador in
the independent Montenegro. Thomas Schmitt was named a first
ambassador in Podgorica in the beginning of 2007.
The fi rst emigrations were registered in 1478. Montenegrins
went to Zadar, Senjsko primorje, Zumberak, Pakrac, Drnis, Benkovac
and other places. Since 1614, every year about 2000 Montenegrins
were going to work in the salines on the Coast, which was
the territory of the Venetian Republic in those times.
_ The fi rst Montenegrin emigrant in the USA was from the
county of Katuni. He went to United States in 1879.
_ 2.500 Montenegrins lived in Hazelton, Pennsylvania at
the end of the last century. They were mostly working as miners.
Because of their tendency to solve problems as they did at home,
Hazelton counted 12 fights of Montenegrins between themselves
and other emigrants and 12 people was dead in one day.
MASONIC LODGE OF THE
_ The first Masonic lodge in the area of the former Yugoslavia
was established in Montenegro. “The lodge of Saint Jean”, whose
members were Napoleon’s soldiers and offi cers, was established in
Kotor in 1807. The lodge was closed when the Frenchmen left Kotor.
_ Sima Milutinovic Sarajlija, the teacher of Petar II Petrovic
Njegos to whom he dedicated “The Light of Microcosm”, was mason.
As it is often said and still not known for sure, Njegos was initiated
_ In 1918 The Grand Masonic Lodge in Paris made a decision
that Montenegro should join Serbia. That is how international
Masonry signed death sentence to Montenegro, because after that
wherever Montenegro asked for help it was refused. Interesting
opinion about that is given in the letter that Jovan Plamenac wrote
to King Aleksandar on the 31st of January 1925.
THE FIFTH TYPE OF THE
BEER IN THE WORLD
_ Montenegrins learned to drink coff ee from Turks and
afterwards they started to drink alcohol that was smuggled from
_ According to some written documents, the first tavern in
Montenegro was opened in Cetinje in 1832.
_ “Rakija” (a strong alcoholic drink) was not drunk in huge
amounts until the second half of the 19-th century. Then and
years after, wine and rakija were rarely drunk in huge amounts and
it was unusual to see Montenegrins drunk.
_ Niksicko pivo is special, fifth type of the beer in the
world. The brewery “Trebjesa” was built in 1896. Its first name was
“Onogost”. Establishment of this brewery is the beginning of industry
not just in Niksic but in whole Montenegro.
TENNIS UNDER LOVCEN
_ The building of the first tennis court in Montenegro
started in 1891 and it was finished in 1910. Cetinje used to have ten
tennis courts. The first tennis clubs in Sarajevo and Bitolj were not
established until the third decade of the last century. In Slovenia
tennis was played ten years later then in Montenegro.
_ King Nikola I Petrovic played the first game of tennis ever
in Montenegro in Cetinje in 1894. King played the game dressed up
in the entire national costume.
_ British revue “Arena” published a text “Montenegrin King
plays tennis in Cetinje” and a photograph of Princes Mirko and
Danilo and princesses Ksenija and Vjera playing tennis.
_ The first tennis and golf club in Montenegro were established
in Cetinje in 1906. Bicyclists club was established a year earlier. Foreign diplomats brought tennis and golf in Cetinje in 19-th
century. At the beginning of 20-th century a lot of familiar and unfamiliar
sports were brought in by Montenegrin students abroad.
Tennis was played in the circles of diplomatic branches in Cetinje
and in the Court of King Nikola. King played tennis as well.
_ Valley-ball playing started mostly in the coastal area of
Montenegro in the third decade of the 20-th century. There were
ten registered clubs.
_ The family with most sportsmen in Montenegro is family
Mahmutovic from Podgorica. Six brothers and sisters Mahmutovic
were practicing diff erent sports. The oldest Geno born in 1940 was
the champion of Yugoslavia in parachuting, Uso was the boxing
champion and representative of Yugoslavia, Bahro was practicing
gymnastics, Ramo was a car racer, Dzavid and Mirsad were boxers
and Muniba was a handball player. All of them have many sport
_ Champions and gold medal carriers on many European
contests were from Montenegro. Some of them are: boxers Miodrag
Perunovic (1979), member of the karate club “Buducnost” (Future)
from Podgorica Samir Usenagic (1986) and member of judo club
“Akademac” (Academic) from Niksic Dragomir Becanovic (1987).
_ Chess was played in Montenegro before the 1888.
_ Chess was the favorite game in the Court of Kind Nikola.
Montenegrin King was very good chess player.
_ “Game on the chess” is mentioned in the Law on Possessions
of Valtazar Bogisic from 1888. That was the only case of
chess legalization in the world.
_ According to the uncertain sources, Mihailo Vukovic
brought a first soccer ball to Cetinje at the beginning of the 20-th
century. His name is also connected with the beginning of soccer
playing in Berane. He was the son of the famous Montenegrin diplomat
Duke Gavro Vukovic. According to other sources brothers
Luka and Milo Milunovic (later famous painter) brought the first
soccer ball from Italy in 1914.
_ An Englishman Alexin Miller brought the first soccer ball
in Podgorica in 1909. He was a member of one trading company
in England. First ball was used for playing on the open parking lot
near today’s Square of Republic. The cars on the lot had iron wheels
and security chains.
_ Muslim priest Safet Hazandarevic was chosen for a
member of the soccer club “Lovcen” in 1926. He was an imam in
the 38-th foot unit in Cetinje.
_ The first international soccer game between representations
of Montenegro and Albania was played in Cetinje on the 1st
of May 1945. Montenegro won the game- 2:1.
_ Montenegro has as much as vegetal units as the whole
area of Europe. In the area of Montenegro there are 2.833 plant
breeds and sub breeds. 220 plants among them are characteristic
only for the area of Balkans and 22 are the plants that exist only in
_ 52 plant breeds in Montenegro are protected as well as
the whole order of the plants Ophrys from the family of Orchidaceae.
_ 180 plant breeds and about 450 sub breeds, forms and
varieties, grows in Montenegro. Montenegro has about 20 new hybrids
_ “Zanovet” (Laburnum) which grows on couple of locations
in Montenegro is one of the most interesting plants in the flora of
Balkan. In 1822, German botanic Ziber described it under the name
Cytisus ramentaceus as the new plant for science.
_ Some endemic breeds in Montenegro are: Edraianthus
Glisicii, Verbascum Durmitoreum Rohl, Daphne Malyana Blecic. In
the flora of Lovcen there are 1200 breeds. There are a lot of Balkans
endemics and three Lovcen’s endemic breeds.
_ The oldest tree in Europe grows near the road that leads
from Bar to Ulcinj. It is an Olive tree that is over 2000 years old. The
circumference of its trunk is about ten m. It is under the protection
of the state and it is a huge tourist attraction. Italians were off ering
millions and millions of liras to dig it with a root and take it to
_ Kasoronj (Trupa Longicurpa) grows only in the Skadar
Lake and nowhere else in the world. Although its root is always
in water it can’t carry the fruit if there is no rain in the summer. The
kasoronj’s fruit is very tasty.
_ There are two eucharis trees growing in the park in Tivat.
Those are real rareness because there are no more eucharis trees on
_ The first article about flora in Montenegro was published
in 1886. Italian botanic Antonio Baldacci described the plants that
are growing in the Cetinjsko polje in the magazine “Glas Crnogorca”
(The voice of Montenegrin). Next article about flora was published
in 1965. Four hundreds of authors wrote 1.800 articles about exploration
of Montenegrin flora and vegetation.
_ Two types of fish that can’t be found anywhere else in the
world live in Skadar Lake. Those are “ukljeva” and “krap”.
_ The eels from Skadar Lake travel for months toward Sargask
Sea, towards Cuba and Bahamas, for spawning. Transparent
little eels travel back from there for three years without any “guides”
because eels that were spawning died in the Gulf of Mexico.
_ In the last 20 years, ten new fish species are discovered in
the Skadar Lake.
_ The richest European river with “lipljen” (Thymallus thymallus)
is river Ljuca near Gusinje.
_ Zimnicko Lake in the bottom of Durmitor is the only home
for “serdarski triniton” which is the endemic amphibian specie.
_ Skadar Lake is one of the biggest bird reserves in Europe.
Permanently or seasonally, 267 birds live there. It is also the habitat
for 40 types of fish. In Europe “kudravi pelikan” (Pelecanus crispus)
can be found only in the Skadar Lake.
_ The island Galebovo Ostrvo in Skadar Lake is the biggest
nestling place of the silver gull in Montenegro. It is very interesting
that sea birds are nestling in the fresh-waters.
_ The only European colony of the grey herons that are
nestling in the branches of laurel is on the island Beska in the Skadar
_ Law for protection the nature in Montenegro gives special
protection to 56 plants and 314 animals. Animals that are protected
are: one specie of fish, 8 amphibians, 24 reptiles, 270 birds, 4
mammals and complete order of bats.
_ A lot of shells, crabs and 116 species of fish live in the South Adriatic.
_ The only mosaic fi gure in the world dedicated to the
God of dreams Hipnos is in Risan. The mosaics in Risan were discovered
on the ground floor of the palace from the 2nd century
and they are one of the most beautiful and most rare mosaics in
Europe. They are often compared with the famous mosaics that are
ornamenting the palace of the tsar Hadrian in Tivoli near Rome. The
mosaics in Risan are multi-colored, there are fi ve of them and all
were done on-site. The most beautiful one is the elegant fi gure of
the God of Dreams Hipnos.